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Home About Designers Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh PDF Print E-mail
* 7th of June 1868 in Glasgow
10th of December 1928 in
Charles Rennie Mackintosh, architect, designer, painter, and graphic artist, born on the 7th of July 1868 in Glasgow, died in London on the 10th of December 1928 at the age of only sixty years of age.
He is one of the leading lights of the British Arts and Crafts Movement in the late 19th century. The Arts and Crafts Movement begins primarily as a search for authentic and meaningful styles for the 19th century and as a reaction to the eclectic revival of historic styles of the Victorian era. Arts and Crafts Movement has an effect on movements like the Vienna Workshops, the German Work Federation and the Bauhaus.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh serves as an apprentice to architect John Hutchinson in Glasgow, while also attending evening courses in drawing and painting at the Glasgow School of Art.
From 1899 until 1913, Charles Rennie Mackintosh works in the architecture practice of Honeyman & Keppie.
In 1894, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Margaret MacDonald, whom he later marries, found the "Glasgow Four" with Margaret's sister Frances, and Herbert MacNair - a group that later dubs the "Spook School". The Glasgow School becomes in time a circle of influential modern artists and designers.
In 1896, the Glasgow Four show their crafts objects and furniture at the Arts & Crafts Exhibition Society in London.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh builds several public buildings as well as private houses in Glasgow and surroundings.
In 1897, Charles Rennie Mackintosh begins to work on a new building for the Glasgow School of Art (finished in 1909). Some of Charles Rennie Mackintosh's projects are conceived and realised as total works of art with the architect equally concerned with designing the entire interior, including textiles and furnishings.
One of these projects is the Hill House dating from 1902/03. A couple of the most important interiors designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh are the Glasgow Tea Rooms in Buchanan Street (1896) and Argyle Street (1897), which Charles Rennie Mackintosh decorates jointly with George Walton for Catherine Cranston. The tearooms in Ingram Street and Willow Street; however, are entirely Charles Rennie Mackintosh's own work.
In 1900, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and his group are invited to show their work at the 8th Exhibition of the Viennese Secession. The Austrian movement objects to the prevailing conservatism of the “Vienna House of Artists” with its traditional orientation. The famous painter Gustav Klimt is the first president of the Vienna Secession.
The designs, especially those of Charles Rennie Macintosh, exert a profound influence on German and Austrian exponents of Jugendstil. Meeting Charles Rennie Mackintosh is crucial for Josef Maria Olbrich, Josef Hoffmann, and Koloman Moser in particular. Charles Rennie Mackintosh is awarded a special prize at the 1901 competition "Haus eines Kunstfreundes" ("House for an Art Lover") organized by Alexander Koch.
In 1902, Charles Rennie Mackintosh is commissioned by Fritz Wärndorfer, who will become the paramount backer of the Vienna Workshops the following year, to design a music room.
In 1914, Charles Rennie Mackintosh goes to London to design textiles for Foxton's and Sefton's. Charles Rennie Mackintosh's later works are unlike his earlier designs which were organic in conception, distinguished by a stringently geometric style, often uniting opposites light and dark, black and white, masculine and feminine, modern and traditional.
In 1923, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and his wife Margaret move to Port Vendres in Brittany, where he devotes himself to painting in watercolour.
Among his most famous furniture designs is the Argyle Chair dated 1898, a black stained chair in solid ashwood with typical Art Nouveau items, originally designed for the central tables of the "Craston's Tea Room" in Argyle Street, Glasgow. There are also the Hill House Chair, the Ingram High and Low Chairs, the Willow 1 Throne, the Willow 2 Chair, the Dining Set Chairs DS 3 and DS 4, the Dining Set Table DS 1 and DS 2.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh is the main exponent of Art Nouveau at the End of the 19th century. He has a considerable influence on European design and Modern Art.